Licensed Mental Health Counselor vs. Licensed Clinical Social Worker: Navigating Mental Health Professions

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In the landscape of mental health professions, licensed mental health counselors (LMHCs) and licensed clinical social workers (LCSWs) stand out as two distinct yet interrelated roles. Both professions are dedicated to supporting individuals, families and communities in addressing mental health challenges and promoting well-being.

Mental Health Counseling

While they share similarities in their overarching goals, there are notable differences in their training, scope of practice and job opportunities. Let’s delve into the intricacies of LMHC and LCSW roles and explore their distinctions.

What is a licensed mental health counselor?

LMHCs are mental health professionals trained to counsel individuals, couples and groups. To become an LMHC, individuals typically need to complete a master’s degree program in counseling or a related field, along with supervised clinical experience and licensure requirements mandated by their state.

LMHCs train to assess and diagnose mental health disorders, develop treatment plans and provide psychotherapy to address a wide range of emotional and behavioral concerns. They may specialize in areas such as substance abuse, trauma, marriage and family therapy or career counseling.

Professional mental health counselors work in diverse settings that may include the following:

  • Colleges and universities
  • Correctional facilities
  • Hospitals
  • K-12 schools
  • Mental health clinics
  • Private practice
  • Social service government agencies

What does a licensed clinical mental health counselor do?

As an LMHC, you’ll have the opportunity to work with individuals and groups to help them cope with challenges related to mental health and wellness. This may involve treatment, prevention and other exercises and techniques designed to help people overcome these challenges to lead full lives.

The primary aspects of a mental health counselor’s practice include the following areas and responsibilities.

  • Assessment: Conducting thorough assessments to understand clients’ presenting issues, mental health history, strengths and needs. This may involve administering standardized assessments, conducting interviews and gathering relevant information.
  • Diagnosis: Using diagnostic criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (also called the DSM) to assess and diagnose mental health disorders when appropriate. LMHCs may work collaboratively with clients and other mental health professionals to formulate accurate diagnoses.
  • Treatment planning: Collaborating with clients to develop personalized treatment plans based on their unique needs and goals. Treatment plans may include a combination of therapeutic interventions, coping strategies and goals for growth and change.
  • Psychotherapy: Providing evidence-based psychotherapy to help clients address a wide range of mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, trauma, relationship issues, grief and stress management. LMHCs utilize various therapeutic approaches, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness-based therapies, interpersonal therapy and solution-focused therapy.
  • Crisis intervention: Offering immediate support and interventions to clients experiencing acute crises such as suicidal ideation, self-harm or emotional distress. LMHCs may provide crisis counseling, risk assessment, safety planning and referrals to appropriate resources.
  • Advocacy and referral: Advocating for clients’ needs and rights within various systems, such as health care, education and social services. LMHCs may also facilitate referrals to other professionals or community resources such as psychiatrists, support groups or social service agencies.
  • Collaboration and consultation: Collaborating with interdisciplinary teams, including psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, educators and health care providers, to ensure comprehensive care for clients. LMHCs may also provide consultation to other professionals regarding mental health issues and interventions.
  • Ethical practice: Adhering to ethical standards and legal regulations governing the practice of mental health counseling. LMHCs maintain confidentiality, respect clients’ autonomy and prioritize their well-being while upholding professional boundaries and responsibilities.

What is a licensed clinical social worker?

LCSWs are clinical social workers with a master’s or doctoral degree in social work from an accredited program. In addition to completing coursework in areas like human behavior, social policy and research methods, LCSWs must accrue supervised clinical experience and pass licensure exams administered by their state regulatory board.

Once you’ve obtained your license and been offered a job upon graduation, you can work with approved individuals to give clinical supervision and accrue the necessary hours for your state.

Unlike LMHCs, LCSWs train to approach community mental health issues from a broader systemic perspective, considering the social, cultural and environmental factors that influence an individual’s well-being. They tend to be skilled in providing individual and group therapy, case management, advocacy and community outreach services.

Professional clinical social workers work in some similar settings as counselors, but some may operate in different, community-focused settings such as the following:

  • Community health centers
  • Nonprofit organizations
  • Social service and government agencies

What does a licensed clinical social worker do?

As an LCSW, you can work with individuals, families and groups to help them overcome challenges and considerations related to social and societal concerns. These may involve working with people living in suboptimal conditions involving alcohol abuse, domestic violence, emotional issues and more.

Many duties and responsibilities of social work have significant crossover with mental health counseling, though the approach, conditions, scope and setting may be different. The primary aspects of a clinical social worker’s practice include the following.

  • Assessment: Conducting comprehensive assessments to evaluate clients’ strengths, challenges and needs. LCSWs gather information about clients’ social, emotional and environmental circumstances to develop a holistic understanding of their situation.
  • Diagnosis and treatment planning: Using diagnostic criteria to assess and diagnose mental health disorders when appropriate. LCSWs collaborate with clients to develop individualized treatment plans that address their specific goals and concerns. Treatment plans may include a combination of therapeutic interventions, supportive services and referrals to other professionals or community resources.
  • Psychotherapy: Providing evidence-based psychotherapy to help clients address a variety of mental health issues, including depression, anxiety, trauma, substance abuse, relationship problems and more. LCSWs employ various therapeutic modalities, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), psychodynamic therapy and family therapy, to facilitate healing and growth.
  • Crisis intervention: Offering immediate support and intervention to clients experiencing acute crises, such as suicidal ideation, domestic violence or substance abuse emergencies. LCSWs provide crisis counseling, risk assessment, safety planning and linkage to appropriate resources for ongoing support.
  • Case management and advocacy: Assisting clients in accessing necessary services and resources such as health care, housing, financial assistance and legal support. LCSWs advocate for clients’ rights and needs within various systems, including health care, education, social services and the legal system. Social workers uphold an ethical obligation to advocate for marginalized or underserved individuals, families and communities, challenging systemic injustices and advocating for equitable access to resources and services.
  • Community outreach and education: Engaging in community outreach activities to raise awareness about mental health issues, reduce stigma and promote access to services. LCSWs may provide psychoeducational workshops, support groups and outreach programs to address the needs of underserved populations and promote mental health awareness.
  • Interdisciplinary collaboration: Collaborating with other professionals, including psychologists, psychiatrists, physicians, educators and law enforcement personnel, to ensure comprehensive care for clients. LCSWs participate in interdisciplinary teams, case conferences, and consultations to coordinate services and support clients’ holistic well-being.
  • Ethical practice: Adhering to ethical standards and legal regulations governing the practice of social work. LCSWs maintain confidentiality, respect clients’ autonomy and uphold professional boundaries while prioritizing clients’ safety and well-being.

You can pursue social work with a bachelor’s degree, but becoming licensed has clear advantages. It can lead to increased earning potential and allows you to practice as a licensed independent clinical social worker (LICSW). Once you’ve earned your license, it is generally relatively easy to maintain (36 units of continuing education and renewal fees).

Pursuing advanced education and licensure is an investment in yourself and your career that may benefit you for the rest of your professional life.

What is the difference between an LMHC and an LCSW?

While both LMHCs and LCSWs are licensed mental health professionals, there are several key differences between the two roles. Here’s a rundown of some of the major comparisons and differences.

Education and training

LMHCs typically hold a master’s degree in counseling, while LCSWs have a master’s degree in social work. The training and coursework for each profession may vary, with LMHC programs focusing more on counseling theories and techniques. In contrast, LCSW programs emphasize social justice, advocacy and policy.

Scope of practice

LMHCs primarily focus on counseling and psychotherapy services within a clinical setting. LCSWs, on the other hand, have a broader scope of practice that encompasses clinical interventions, case management, community organizing and advocacy.


LMHCs may specialize in marriage and family therapy, addiction counseling, rehabilitation counseling or career counseling. Depending on their interests and career goals, LCSWs may specialize in areas like clinical social work, child welfare, health care or school social work.

What are the skills that both roles share?

Both social workers and mental health counselors require a range of crucial skills to be effective when supporting individuals and improving their overall well-being. These essential skills encompass various interpersonal abilities, including the following.

Understanding and empathy

The capacity to comprehend and empathize with individuals’ experiences and emotions is crucial in social work and mental health counseling. This helps foster a sense of understanding and connection between practitioners and the populations they serve.

Written and verbal communication skills

Proficiency in active listening and clear communication is essential for facilitating meaningful conversations and establishing rapport with clients.

Project management

Given their clients’ diverse needs, social workers and mental health counselors must manage multiple cases efficiently, making project management and organizational skills indispensable.


Recognizing that clients may require time to open up about challenging or complex issues, patience is critical in building trust and creating a safe therapeutic environment.

Critical thinking and solution-focused

Addressing each client’s needs demands problem-solving skills to identify effective strategies and interventions.

Interpersonal skills

Given their collaborative efforts with various governmental and social service entities, social workers benefit from strong interpersonal abilities to effectively engage with stakeholders and develop community-driven initiatives. Counselors likewise need to be able to communicate effectively with those they serve, their families and other experts with whom they might be working.

Cultural competence

Working with clients from diverse backgrounds necessitates cultural awareness and sensitivity. Social workers and counselors strive to understand and respect their clients’ cultural nuances and traditions, ensuring culturally responsive and inclusive practices in service delivery.

Collaboration and interdisciplinary practice

Mental health counselors and social workers collaborate with interdisciplinary teams, including psychologists, psychiatrists, physicians, educators and community organizations, to coordinate services and support clients’ holistic well-being.

By honing these skills and competencies, social workers and mental health counselors can provide comprehensive support to individuals and communities, promoting holistic well-being and social justice.

LMHC vs LCSW: Job outlook and salary projections

According to data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the median salary for mental health counselors, including LMHCs, was $53,710 as of 2023. The job outlook for this profession is positive, with the number of jobs projected to grow 18% from 2022 to 2032, much faster than the average of just 3% projected across all occupations.

The growth in demand for this role is likely to be the result of better diagnostic techniques resulting in a higher number of people, especially minors, learning about and seeking to address any mental health concerns.

The median annual wage for social workers, including LCSWs, was $58,380 as of 2023, though this includes all social workers, and licensed professionals are likely to earn more. The highest-paid social workers have salaries approaching or exceeding $100,000 according to the BLS.

The projected job outlook for social workers is 7% growth from 2022 to 2032, about two times the average for all occupations, a change spurred by factors like a growing and aging population and an increase in drug users being treated via social worker intervention.

What’s the difference between therapists and LMHCs or LCSWs?

People also wonder about the difference between clinical social work and therapists. The term “therapist” is a general title that refers to various mental health professionals, including psychologists, counselors and marriage and family therapists.

Therapists may have different training paths depending on their profession. For example, psychologists typically have doctoral-level training in psychology, counselors often hold master’s degrees in counseling or related fields, and marriage and family therapists specialize in systemic therapy approaches.

Therapists may specialize in specific modalities or populations, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, trauma-focused therapy, or child and adolescent therapy. While clinical social workers and therapists provide mental health services, clinical social workers have a distinct background in social work theory and practice, informing their therapy approach within a broader social context. On the other hand, therapists encompass a broader range of mental health professionals with diverse educational backgrounds and training paths.

Pursue your master’s degree and discover which mental health profession is right for you

Choosing between a career as an LMHC or an LCSW depends on your interests, values and career aspirations.

A career as an LMHC may be a good fit if you are passionate about providing individualized counseling services and focused on clinical interventions. On the other hand, if you are drawn to systemic interventions, community organizing and advocacy efforts, pursuing a career as an LCSW may align more closely with your goals.

Both LMHCs and LCSWs play vital roles in promoting mental health and well-being in our communities. By understanding the differences between these professions and exploring your interests and strengths, you can decide which mental health profession is right for you.

At the University of North Dakota, we offer comprehensive options for counseling programs, providing students with the knowledge, skills and hands-on experience needed to excel in their chosen profession. If you aspire to become an LMHC, our faculty and resources are here to support you every step of the way.

Visit our admission page for more information regarding the application requirements by program or to contact an advisor.

Sources:, “LMHC vs. LCSW: What They Are and How They Compare”
National Association of Social Workers, “About Social Workers”
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “21-1018 Substance Abuse, Behavioral Disorder, and Mental Health Counselors”
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Social Workers”
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Strong growth projected in mental health-related employment”
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Substance Abuse, Behavioral Disorder, and Mental Health Counselors”